Jorge Luis Borges was born on August 24, 1899 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the year 1921 he became the leading exponent and theorist of Argentine ultraísmo, distinguished from its Spanish counterpart by a peculiar fusion of modern expressionist form and anachronistic nostalgia for certain national values. Until 1930 his main creative medium was poetry: free verse poems which exemplified the atmosphere of Buenos Aires as well as treating themes of love, death and the self. The years 1930-1940 brought about a deep change in Borges` work - he returned to short narrative works. In the majority of his works Borges sought to create a coherent fictional world of the intelligence. Borges himself once claimed that the basic devices of all fantastic literature are only four in number: the work within the work, the contamination of reality by dream, the voyage in time, and the double. In Borges' works one can find, according to critics René Etiemble and Marcel Brion, "the very perfection of the cosmopolitan spirit, and one of the most extraordinary expressions in all Western literature of modern man's anguish of time, of space, of the infinite." Borges died in 1986, leaving behind a small collection of short stories, essays and poetry as well as an enormous school of literary admirers.